From the Honorable
Gordon R. England
Secretary of the Navy
On the occasion of the 230th Birthday
Birthdays are traditionally
milestones in time that call for
both reflection on achievements past and thoughts on changes
ahead. The Navy's birthday is no different.
On the occasion of this
230th milestone, we can all take enormous
pride in a naval history rich in tradition and unparalleled
success. Today, the United States Navy stands alone, unmatched
in the world.
John Paul Jones
set the tone of our service when he stated, "I
wish to have no connection with any ship that does not sail
fast; for I intend to go in harm's way." For more than
centuries, this legacy has endured, along with our core
of honor, courage, and commitment. Brave Sailors and Marines
have repeatedly fought to guarantee the security and prosperity
of our great Nation and to defend freedom and democracy
Freedom and liberty are not birthrights; rather, they need
guarded, defended and protected. For 230 years, magnificent
and women have stepped forward to preserve this gift of
and liberty for us. Now, it's our responsibility to pass
this gift to future generations.
Today, our Navy again
sails in harm's way fighting global
terrorism - a profound threat to peace, stability, and our
of life. We are again a Nation at war, and these are historic
Like the men and women
who served during World War II, this
generation will also earn the respect and admiration of
generations yet unborn for answering the call and defeating
global scourge of terrorism. You and your families are making
many sacrifices to preserve our way of life, and it is deeply
appreciated by the American people. In this global war on
terror, your service is vitally important and highly valued.
For me, it's an honor
and privilege to serve with the
professional men and women who wear the Navy uniform. I
thank all the civilians in our Navy family for their hard
and devotion. Quite simply, without our civilians behind
lines, Sailors and Marines could never deploy to the front
lines. In this fight, we truly are One Team!
Happy 230th birthday
to the greatest Navy the world has ever
seen. God bless each of you and your families, and may God
continue to bless America.
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Captains and Commanders
Esek Hopkins, Commander
in Chief, 22 Dec. 1775
1. James Nicholson, 6 June 1776
2. John Manley, 17 Apri.1776
3. Hector McNeill, 15 June 1776
4. Dudley Saltonstall, 22 Dec. 1775
5. Nicholas Biddle, 22 Dec. 1775
6. Thomas Thompson, 6 June 1776
7. John Barry, 6 June 1776
8. Thomas Read, 6 June 1776
9. Thomas Grinnell, 15 June 1776
10. Charles Alexander, 18 Apr. 1776
11. Lambert Wickes
12. Abraham Whipple, 22 Dec.1775
13. John Burrows Hopkins, 22 Dec.1775
14. John Hodge, 22 Aug.1776
15. William Hallock, 18 Apr.1776 16. Hoysted Hacker
17. Isaiah Robinson
18. John Paul Jones
19. James Josiah
20. Elisha Hinman, 13 Aug. 1776
21. Joseph Olney
22. James Robinson
23. John Young
24. Elisha Warner
John Nicholson, 19 Nov.
Samuel Nicholson, 10 Dec. 1776
Henry Johnson, 5 Feb. 1777
John Peck Rathburne, 15 Feb. 1777
Gustavus Conyngham, 1 Mar.1777
Samuel Tucker, 15 Mar.1777
Daniel Waters, 17 Mar.1777
John Green, 11 Feb. 1778
William Burke, 1 May 1778
Pierre Landais, 18 June 1778
Seth Harding, 23 Sept. 1778
Silas Talbot, 17 Sept. 1779
Note: The names of captains which are numbered were those
appointed 10 Oct. 1776 in order of rank. Many held earlier
commissions which are noted.
Vessels of the Continental
Name Guns Type How acquired
Alfred 24 Ship Purchased 1775 Captured 9 March 1778 by HMS
Ariadne and Ceres
Columbus 20 Ship Purchased 1775 Burned 27 March 1778 after
being chased on shore by a British squadron
Andrew Doria 14 Brig Purchased 1775 Burned to prevent capture,
21 November 1777
Cabot 14 Brig Purchased 1775 Captured by HMS Milford in
Providence 12 Sloop Purchased 1775 Destroyed 1779
Hornet 10 Sloop Purchased 1775 Destroyed 1777
Wasp 8 Schooner Purchased 1775 Destroyed 1777
Fly 8 Schooner Purchased 1775 Destroyed 1777
Lexington 16 Brig Purchased 1776 Captured by British cutter
Reprisal 16 Brig Purchased 1776 Lost at sea 1777
Hampden 14 Brig Purchased 1776 Sold 1777
Independence 10 Sloop Purchased 1776 Wrecked 1778
Sachem 10 Sloop Purchased 1776 Destroyed 1777
Mosquito 4 Sloop Puchased 1776 Destroyed 1777
Raleigh 32 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1778
Hancock 32 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1777
Warren 32 Frigate Launched 1776 Destroyed 1779
Washington 32 Frigate Launched 1776 Destroyed 1777
Randolph 32 Frigate Launched 1776 Lost in action 1778
Providence 28 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1780
Trumbull 28 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1781
Congress 28 Frigate Lauched 1776 Destroyed 1777
Virginia 28 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1778
Effingham 28 Frigate Launched 1776 Destroyed 1777
Boston 24 Frigate Launched 1776 Captured 1780
Montgomery 24 Frigate Launched 1776 Destroyed 1777
Delaware 24 Frigate Launched 1776 Destroyed 1777
Ranger 18 Ship Launched 1777 Captured 1780
Resistance 10 Brigantine Launched 1777 Captured 1778
Surprise Sloop Purchases 1777 Unknown
Racehorse 12 Sloop Captured 1776 Destroyed
Repulse 8 Xebec Pennsylvania State Navy gunboat lent to
Continental Navy 1777 Destroyed 1777
Champion 8 Xebec Pennsylvania State Navy gunboat lent to
Continental Navy 1777 Destroyed 1777
L'Indien 40 Frigate Built in Holland 1777 Sold to France;
later acquiredby South Carolina Navy as South Carolina
Deane (later Hague) 32 Frigate Purchased 1777 Sold 1783
Queen of France 28 Frigate Purchased 1777 Sunk 1780
Dolphin 10 Cutter Purchased 1777 Unknown
Surprise 10 Lugger Purchased 1777 Seized by France
Revenge 14 Cutter Purchased 1777 Sold 1779
Alliance 32 Frigate Launched 1778 Sold 1785
General Gates 18 Ship Purchased 1778 Sold 1779
Retaliation Brigantine Purchased 1778 Unknown
Pigot 8 Schooner Captured 1778 Unknown
Confederacy 32 Frigate Launched 1779 Captured 1781
Argo 12 Sloop Purchased 1779 Sold 1779
Diligent 12 Brig Captured 1779 Destroyed 1779
Bonhomme Richard 42 Ship Purchased 1779 Lost in action 1779
Pallas 32 Frigate Lent by France 1779 Returned to France
Cerf 18 Cutter Lent by France 1779 Returned to France
Vengeance 12 Brig Lent by France 1779 Returned to France
Serapis 44 Frigate Captured 1779 Sold 1779
Ariel 20 Ship Lent by France 1780 Returned to France 1781
Saratoga 18 Ship Launched 1780 Lost at sea 1781
America 74 Ship of the line Launched 1782 Given to France
General Washington 20 Ship Captured 1782 Sold 1784
Duc de Lauzun 20 Ship Purchased 1782 Sold 1783
Bourbon 36 Frigate Launched 1783 Sold 1783
of USS Providence
The capital of Rhode Island, in turn named in thanksgiving
for God's guidance and care.
(Sloop: complement 90; armament
From the early 1775,
British men-of-war, especially His Majesty's Frigate Rose,
preyed on Rhode Island shipping and annoyed the colony's
coast. On 13 June Deputy Governor Nicholas Cooke, wrote
James Wallace, the frigate's Captain demanding restoration
of several ships which Rose had captured. Two days later
the Rhode Island General Assembly ordered the committee
of safety to fit out two ships to defend the colony's shipping
and appointed a committee of three to obtain vessels. That
day the committee chartered sloop Katy from John Brown of
Providence and sloop Washington at the same time. The General
Assembly appointed Abraham Whipple, who had won fame in
the burning of British armed schooner Gaspee in 1772, commander
of Katy, the larger ship, and made him commmodore of the
tiny fleet. Before sunset that day Whipple captured a tender
to British Frigate Rose. Katy cruised in Narragansett Bay
through the summer protecting coastal shipping.
The supply of gun powder,
an essential commodity scarce in the Continental Army throughout
the Revolutionary War, was desperately low during the first
year of struggle for Independence. Late in the summer of
1775 the shortage in Washington's Army besieging Boston
became so severe that he was unable to use his artillery
and his riflemen would have been unable to repel an attack
had the British taken the offensive.
In an effort to obtain
precious powder for the Continental Army, Cooke ordered
Whipple to cruise for a fortnight off Sandy Hook, N.J.,
to intercept a powder laden packet expected from London.
He was then to proceed to Bermuda to capture the powder
stored in the British magazine there. Katy departed Narragansett
Bay 12 September but caught no sight of the packet. Later
upon reaching Bermuda, Whipple learned that the powder from
the magazine was already enroute to Philadelphia.
Soon after she returned
to Providence, Katy was purchased by Rhode Island 31 October.
Late in November, Katy sailed for Philadelphia carrying
seamen enlisted by Commodore Esek Hopkins in New England
for continental service. Arriving 3 December, Katy was immediately
taken into Continental service and renamed Providence.
Captain Whipple assumed
command of Columbus, a larger ship; and Captain John Hazard
was placed in command of Providence, later formalized by
a commission from Congress dated 9 January 1776. The ships
joined a squadron being formed by Congress under the command
of "Commander in Chief of the Fleet of the United Colonies"
On 5 January 1776, Congress
ordered Hopkins to sail for Chesapeake Bay and clear waters
there of the ships of a fleet organized the previous autumn
by Governor Dunmore of Virginia. These English and Tory
ships had ravaged the shores of the bay and the rivers which
empty into it. Once Whipple's ships had completed this task,
they were to move south and clear the Carolina coast of
enemy shipping before sailing North to Rhode Island to perform
a similar service.
Providence and her consorts
departed Philadelphia early in January but, delayed by ice,
did not get to sea until 17 February. Deeming it unwise
to cruise along the southern coast, Hopkins led his little
fleet to Abaco in the Bahamas which they reached 1 March
and staged for a raid on New Providence. The next day they
seized two sloops on which Hopkins placed a landing party
of 200 marines and 50 sailors. At mid morning of the 3rd,
under cover of guns of Providence and Wasp, the Americans
went ashore unopposed on the eastern end of New Providence
and advanced toward Fort Montagne which opened fire interrupting
the invader's progress. The defenders spiked their guns
and retreated to Fort Nassau. The next day Nassau surrendered
and gave the Americans the keys to the Fort. Hopkins then
brought his ships into the harbor and spent a fortnight
loading captured munitions, before heading home 17 March.
Off Block Island, Hopkin's
ships captured schooner Hawk belonging to the British fleet
at Newport 4 April and at dawn the next day took brig Bolton.
That evening the Americans added a brigantine and a sloop,
both from New York, to their list of prizes.
About 0100, 6 April,
Andrew Doria sighted HMS Glasgow, a 20-gun sloop carrying
dispatches from Newport to Charleston. The American fleet
engaged the enemy ship for one and one-half hours before
she turned back and fled back toward Newport. After daylight
Hopkins ordered his ships to give up the chase and headed
with his fleet and prizes for New London where they arrived
on the 8th.
On 10 May, John Paul
Jones assumed command of Providence with temporary
rank of Captain. After a voyage to New York returning to
the Continental Army about 100 soldiers whom Washington
had lent to Hopkins to help man the American fleet, and
after returning to Providence, Jones hove down the
ship to clean her bottom and sailed 13 June escorting Fly
to Fisher's Island at the entrance to Long Island Sound.
Enroute he saved a brigantine bringing munitions from Hispanola
from British frigate HMS Cerberus.
Providence next escorted
a convoy of colliers to Philadelphia arriving 1 August.
There a week later, Jones received his permanent
commission as Captain. On the 21st, Providence departed
the Delaware Capes to begin an independent cruise, and in
a few days took brigantine Britannia and sent the whaler
into Philadelphia under a prize crew on 1 September daring
seamanship enabled Jones to escape from British frigate
Solebay. Two days later Providence captured Sea Nymph, carrying
sugar, rum, ginger, and oil, and sent the Bermudan brigantine
to Philadelphia. On the 6th Providence caught brigantine
Favourite carrying sugar from Anitgua to Liverpool, but
HMS Galatea recaptured the prize before she could reach
an American port.
Turning north, Jones
headed for Nova Scotia, and on 20 September escaped another
frigate before reaching Canso two days later. There he recruited
men to fill the vacancies created by manning his prizes,
burned a British fishing schooner, sank a second, and captured
a third besides a shallop which he used as a tender. Moving
to Ile Madame, Providence took several more prizes fishing
there before riding out a severe storm. One more prize,
whaler Portland surrendered to Providence before she returned
to Narragansett Bay 8 October.
While Providence was
at home, Hopkins appointed Jones Commander Alfred,
a larger ship and the Commander in Chief's flagship on the
expedition to the Bahamas. Shortly thereafter, Capt. Hoysted
Hacker took command of Providence. The two ships got under
way 11 November. After ten days they took brigantine Active
and the next day took armed transport Mellish carrying winter
uniforms and military supplies for the British Army. On
the 16th they captured snow Kitty. The next night, Providence,
troubled by leaks which had developed during bad weather
on the cruise, headed back for Rhode Island and arrived
Newport two days later.
The British seized Narragansett
Bay in December 1776 and Providence with other American
vessels there retired up the Providence River. In February
1777, under Lt. Jonathan Pitcher, providence ran the British
blockade; and after putting into New Bedford, cruised to
Cape Breton, where she captured a transport brig loaded
with stores and carrying two officers and 25 men of the
British Army besides her crew. Under command of Capt. J.P.
Rathbun, Providence made two cruises on the coast and about
mid-January 1778, sailed from Georgetown, N.C., again bound
for New Providence in the Bahamas, this time alone. On 27
January she spiked the guns of the fort at Nassau, taking
military stores including 1600 pounds of powder, and released
30 American prisoners. She also made prize of a 16-gun British
ship and recaptured five other vessels which had been brought
in by the British, On 30 January the prizes were manned
and sailed away. Providence, with her armed prize, put into
During the early part
of April 1779 Providence was ordered to make a short cruise
in Massachusetts Bay and along the coast of Maine. She later
sailed south of cape Cod and on 7 May, captured HMS Brig
Diligent, 12 guns, off Sandy Hook. She fired two broadsides
and a volley of muskets during the engagement and Diligent,
with mast rigging and hull cut to pieces, was forced to
surrender. She then was assigned to Commodore Saltonstall's
squadron which departed Boston 19 July 1779 and entered
Penobscot Bay 25 July. She was destroyed by her crew, with
other American vessels in the Peneobscot River, 14 August
1779, to prevent her falling into the hands of the British.
(Frigate: tonnage 632;
length 126'6.5"; beam 33'8"; depth 10'5";
armament 28 guns)
The second Providence,
a 28-gun frigate, built by Silvester Bowes at Providence,
R.I., by order of the Continental Congress, was launched
in May 1776.
After being blockaded
in the Providence River for more than a year, the new frigate,
under the command of Captain Abraham Whipple, ran the British
blockade on the night of 30 April 1778, returning the heavy
fire of the British ship Lark and damaging that vessel,
then fighting a running battle with another vessel of the
British blockading force. She sailed directly for France,
arriving at Paimboeuf 30 May to procure guns and supplies
for Continental Navy vessels under construction. She sailed
from Plaimboeuf 8 August and six days later, joined frigate
Boston at Brest, France. The two ships sailed back to America
22 August. They took 3 prizes on the return voyage and Providence
arrived Portsmouth, N.H., 15 October.
Transferred to Boston
to seek a crew, Providence sailed from Boston 18 June 1779
as flagship of Commodore Abraham Whipple, cruising eastward
in company with Ranger and Queen of France. In the early
morning of mid-July, the squadron was in a dense fog off
the banks of Newfoundland and fell in with a Jamaican fleet
of some 150 sails. The vessels remained with the enemy fleet
all day without causing alarm. They took 11 prizes, many
by quietly sending boats to take possession. The squadron
slipped away with their prizes during the night. They sent
8 of the prizes, valued together with their cargo at over
a million dollars, into Boston and Cape Ann. The Squadron
returned to Boston and 23 November sailed from Nantasket
Roads, first cruising eastward of Bermuda, arriving at Charleston
23 December to defend the city.
Providence, with other
ships of Commodore Whipple's Squadron remained for the defense
of Charleston and was one of the ships taken by British
when that city fell, 12 May 1780. She subsequently served
in the British Navy until sold in March 1783.
(Gundalow: length 53'4";
beam 15'6"; depth 3'10"; complement 45; armament
1 12-pounder; 29-pounders; 8 swivels)
During the Revolutionary
War, Providence, a gundalow, was built at Skenesboro, N.Y.,
on Lake Champlain by the Continental Army for Brigadier-General
Benedict Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain in 1776.
Under the command of
Captain Simonds, an Army officer, she participated in the
engagement between Arnold's fleet and a British squadron
at Valcour Island on 11 October 1776. After the battle,
their ammunition nearly exhausted, the Americans retreated
towards Crown Point, with the enemy in pursuit and the next
morning (the 12th) Providence, being badly damaged, was
sunk at Schuyler's Island by her own crew to prevent capture.
This tactical defeat was a strategic victory for the Americans
since Arnold's little fleet enabled the rebelling colonists
to prepare for the renewed British onslaught the following
summer which ended in Burgoyne's defeat at Saratoga.
Light Cruiser, CL-82:
displacement 13,755 (full load); length 610' 1"; beam
66' 4"; draft 25'; speed 32 knots; complement 992;
armament 12 6", 12 5", 28 40 millimeter, 10 20
millimeter, 2 catapults; class: Cleveland)
Providence (CL-82) was
laid down 27 July 1943 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Quincy, Mass.;
launched 28 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Mary Roberts;
and commissioned 15 May 1945, Capt. W. B. Jackson in command.
Departing Boston 13
June 1945, Providence (CL-82) completed shakedown out of
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Upon arrival at Newport, R.I., 4 September,
she trained prospective cruiser and carrier crews until
Departing Boston in
November, she visited Piraeus, Greece in December, Istanbul
with Missouri (BB-63) 5 to 9 April 1946, and Alexandria,
Egypt in May. Leaving the Mediterranean 16 June, she arrived
at Philadelphia on the 25th. Following departure from the
Delaware Capes in October and training out of Guantanamo
Bay and Norfolk, Va., she left Hampton Roads for the Mediterranean
3 February 1947. After exercises and port visits in the
Mediterranean she departed Athens, Greece, in May, and arrived
at Boston later that month.
Departing Newport, R.I.,
in November, she operated in the Mediterranean from 20 November
1947 to 2 March 1948, visiting Naples in December, Taranto
in January, and Trieste and Venice in February, returning
to Newport in March. Sailing from Newport in September 1948,
she served the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean from 23 September
1948 to 14 January 1949, visiting Thessalonika in October,
Marseilles in November, Trieste and Venice in December,
and Oran in January, returning to Newport later in January.
She decommissioned at Boston 14 June 1949, and entered the
Atlantic Reserve Fleet.
Reclassified CLG-6 on
23 May 1957, Providence commenced conversion to a guided
missile light cruiser at Boston in June 1957. Provided with
modern missiles, command ship facilities and a nuclear weapons
capability, she recommissioned 17 September 1959, Capt.
Kenneth L. Veth in command. Following shakedown out of Guantanamo
Bay, she arrived at her new home port of Long Beach, Calif.,
29 July 1960. After a six month tour of duty with the 7th
Fleet, she returned to Long Beach 31 March 1961.
off the west coast, she arrived at Yokosuka, Japan, in May
1962, and relieved Oklahoma City (CLG-5) as flagship of
the 7th Fleet. During 1962 and 1963, she participated in
7th Fleet exercises. During a three day visit to Saigon
in January 1964, she hosted South Vietnamese and American
dignitaries, and delivered more than 38 tons of Project
Handclasp materials to local humanitarian organizations.
Departing Yokosuka in July 1964, she returned to Long Beach
in August. In October 1964, she began exercises in the Eastern
Pacific. During January to June 1965, she received modern
communications equipment. Spending the remainder of 1965
off the west coast with the 1st Fleet, she participated
in exercises and visited various west coast ports.
Deployed to WestPac
12 November 1966, she again relieved Oklahoma City as flagship
of the 7th Fleet on 1 December 1966 at Yokosuka, Japan.
She contributed to a major bombardment of enemy positions
in Vietnam 1 April 1967. She dueled with an enemy shore
battery off the DMZ on 25 May. In July, she provided gunfire
support for amphibious operations. She bombarded enemy storage
areas south of Da Nang 10 October.
During 1968, she provided
gunfire support off Vietnam during each month except June
and December. In February 1968, during the enemy's Tet offensive,
gunfire from Providence effected an important breach in
the wall of an enemy strongpoint at Hue. During 1969 she
operated with the 1st Fleet off the west coast. Into 1970
she remained active with the Pacific Fleet.
GENERAL ORDER NO. 30
Washington, D.C., May
ORDERS GOVERNING THE MOVEMENTS OF THE RUDDER.
1. On and after July
1, 1913, the present designations "starboard"
and "port" governing movements of a ship's helm
are hereby ordered discontinued in orders and directions
to the steersman, and the terms "right" and "left,"
referring to movement of the ship's head, shall thereafter
be used instead.
2. The orders as to
rudder angle shall be given in such terms as "Ten degrees
rudder; half-rudder; standard rudder; full rudder;"
etc, so that a complete order would be "Right --- Half
3. Commanders in chief
and commanding officers acting independently may, in their
discretion, institute the above changes at an earlier date.
F. D. ROOSEVELT,
Acting Secretary of
UNITED STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT,
It having been represented
to the Department, that confusion arises from the use of
the words "Larboard" and "Starboard,"
in consequence of the similiarity of sound, the word "Port"
is hereafter to be substituted for "Larboard."
Washington, D.C., May 12, 1917.
1. Upon the receipt
of this order steps will immediately be taken to make identification
tags for all officers and enlisted men of the United States
naval service. Make requisition on the supply officers,
New York, for tags and necessary outfit for preparing same.
2. The following instructions
will be followed:
The identification tag
for officers and enlisted men of the Navy consists of an
oval plate of monel metal, 1.25 by 1.50 inch, perforated
at one end and suspended from the neck by a monel wire encased
in a cotton sleeve.
The tag has on one side
the etched finger print of the right index finger. On the
other side are to be etched the individual's initials and
surname, the month, day, and year of enlistment (expressed
in numerals, e.g., 1.5.1916) and the month, day, and year
of birth (similarly expressed). This side will also bear
the letters U.S.N.; for officers - initials and surname,
the rank held, and date of appointment.
The etching of the tag
shall be done by such member or members of the Hospital
Corps as the medical officer may designate.
The following articles
1. The outfit for making
a finger print on paper.
2. A supply of printer's ink thinned to the proper consistency
for easy use with an ordinary steel pen. (Dilute with gasoline
3. Gilsonite or powdered asphaltum.
4. Nitric acid (1 part by volume), water (2 parts by volume),
in glass dish.
5. Alcohol lamp with good flame or electric stove.
6. A device for holding the tag without touching the flat
surfaces (not supplied but can be made by any carpenter's
The steps in the preparation
of the etchings are as follows:
After collecting the
various articles described above, take an ordinary "rolled"
(see Manual for Medical Department - "Identification
records and finger prints") finger print on paper to
show that the finger is clean, not too heavily inked, etc.,
and will make a good print, and write down on paper the
data for the other side - initials, surname and dates required.
Make a "rolled" finger print (right index finger)
on the metal tag in the usual manner. Holding the tag by
the edge (by
improvised holder), turn it over and write on the other
side with a clean steel pen (in printer's ink that has been
thinned out with turpentine or gasoline) the initials and
surname, the date of enlistment and of birth (using figures),
and the letters U.S.N. on the left end of the oval.
While ink is still fresh
on both surfaces sprinkle them with finely powdered asphaltum.
Some of this will mix with the ink and stick to the two
surfaces. The rest should be blown off. Now heat the tag
slightly above the boiling point of water. Allow the tag
to cool. Put it in the nitric-acid solution for one hour.
Remove, wash in water, and dry.
Great care is to be
exercised in the preparation of the tags so as to avoid
useless expense for tags spoiled in the process.
The following cautions
are to be noted:
Remove all excess of
ink from the finger, leaving a smooth, uniform coating.
Press the finger lightly against the metal tag, avoiding
too great pressure, as this will smear the impression.
If the first impression
with ink is not satisfactory, make it again on a fresh tag.
Tags that have been soiled with printer's ink can be used
again after thorough cleansing with gasoline. The cleansing
must be thorough, as the least trace of ink left on the
tag from a previous attempt will spoil the etching. (It
is well to put aside the tags on which poor printing has
been done and clean them up all at one time for use.)
In inscribing the name
use a blunt pen and diluted printer's ink. The ink can be
thinned with gasoline or turpentine. Turpentine is preferable,
as it does not dry so quickly, and the next step must be
carried out with both sides of the tag wet. Have the initials,
surname, and dates written out on paper in advance so they
can be quickly inscribed on the tag without having to delay
by questioning the person for whom the tag is being prepared.
The ink should be just
thin enough to write with. If it spreads on the metal it
is too thin; if too thick it will not flow from the point
of the pen.
Be careful not to smudge
the finger print while writing name.
The next step is the
application of the gilsonite or asphaltum. This should be
fine enough to pass through a sieve having 100 meshes to
the square inch. Sprinkle thickly on the two wet surfaces.
Remove what does not mix with and stick to the ink by tapping
The tag is now held
with forceps over a flame or stove until the ink and asphaltum
have melted together, forming sharp, glossy black lines.
If not enough heat is
applied to completely melt the asphaltum, the action of
the acid will be too powerful. Complete melting of the asphaltum
is indicated by the lines becoming glossy. If too much heat
is applied, the lines run together and are obliterated.
The etching solution
consists of -
acid-------1 part by volume
Water-------------------------2 parts by volume
The solution may be
placed in glass, china, or enameled iron ware (if there
are no nicks or cracks). A number of tags can be etched
at once, but do not pile them one on top of the other. The
name side should be up and the finger-print side down while
in the acid bath. This will favor deeper etching on the
name side, which is desirable, as it will then not wear
off so rapidly.
The etching process
or acid bath should be watched and a tag lifted out from
time to time to see how lively the action is. It can be
moderated by adding water. Usually the process of etching
requires one hour. The acid solution naturally weakens with
use and should be renewed from time to time. If the corrosive
action is slow in beginning, concentrated muriatic acid
(HCl) may be added - 1 part to every 30 of the nitric solution.
The data desired are
put on thus:
U.S.N.[*] Frank W.
4. 14. 16------------(First enlistment).
2. 21. 85------------(Date of birth).
[*Editor's Note: This text was placed at a 90 degree angle
to the text.]
In the case of officers
it will be necessary, when making the tags, to make also
the usual finger prints on paper (as required for enlisted
men) and to send them to Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department,
Washington, D.C., for filing.
Enter on the blank,
full name of officer, the rank held, and date of appointment.
Secretary of the Navy.
Source: General Orders of Navy Department, Series of 1913.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1918.
15 December 1998
Dictionary of American
Naval Fighting Ships
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060